Ethiopian Institute for Nonviolence Education and Peace Studies

Rulers and Heads of State

ReignPortraitBirth NameRegnal NameNotes
Ethiopian Empire  (Mängəstä Ityop'p'ya)
Zagwe Dynasty
There is no current consensus on the precise reigns of the rulers of the Zagwe dynasty.
Mara Takla Haymanot
Tatadim
Jan Seyum
Germa Seyum
Yemrehana Krestos
Kedus Harbe
1189 to 1229 Lalibela1.png Gebre Mesqel Lalibela
Na'akueto La'ab
Yetbarak
Mairari
Harbai
Solomonic Dynasty
1270 to 1285 Yekuno Amlak Tasfa Iyasus
1285 to 1294 Yagbe'u Seyon Salomon I
1294 to 1295 Senfa Ared IV
1295 to 1296 Hezba Asgad
1296 to 1297 Qedma Asgad
1297 to 1298 Jin Asgad
1298 to 1299 Saba Asgad
1299 to 1314 Wedem Arad
1314 to 1344 Amda Seyon I Gabra Masqal I
1344 to 1372 Newaya Krestos Sayfa Ar`ed
1372 to 1382 Newaya Maryam Wedem Asfare; or
Gemma Asfare
1382 to 1413 Dawit I
1413 to 1414 Tewodros I Walda Ambasa Ruled 9 months
1414 to 1429 Yeshaq I
(Isaac)
Gabra Masqal II
1429 to 1430 Andreyas
(Andrew)
Ruled 4 or 6 months.
1430 to 1433 Takla Maryam Hezba Nan
1433 Sarwe Iyasus Mehreka Nan
1433 to 1434 Amda Iyasus Badel Nan Ruled 8 months.
1434 to 1468 Zara Yaqob Kuestantinos I
(Constantine I)
Dating becomes certain here
1468 to 1478 Baeda Maryam I
1478 to 1494 Eskender Constantine II
1494 Amda Seyon II Ruled 6 or 7 months.
1494 to 1508 Na'od
1508 to 1540 Lebna Dengel.png Dawit II
(David II)
Lebna Dengel
September 3, 1540 to March 23, 1559 Gelawdewos
(Claudius)
Asnaf Sagad I
1559 to 1563 Menas Admas Sagad I
1563 to 1597 Sarsa Dengel Malak Sagad I
1597 to 1603 Yaqob
(Jacob)
Malak Sagad II
1603 to 1604 Za Dengel Asnaf Sagad II
1604 to 1606 Yaqob
(Jacob)
Malak Sagad II Restored
1606 to 1632 Susenyos Malak Sagad III Crowned on 18 March 1608
1632 to 1667 Fasilides
(Basilides)
`Alam Sagad
1667 to 1682 Yohannes I
(John I)
A'ilaf Sagad
19 July 1682 to 13 October 1706 Iyasu I
(Iyasu the Great)
Adyam Sagad II
1685 Yeshaq Iyasu ? A rebel
27 March 1706 to 30 June 1708 Tekle Haymanot I Le`al Sagad
September 1707 Amda Seyon A rebel
1 July 1708 to 14 October 1711 Tewoflos
(Theophilus)
Walda Ambasa
1709 to July 1710 Nebahne Yohannes A rebel
14 October 1711 to 19 February 1716 Yostos
(Justus)
Sahay Sagad Not of the Solomonic dynasty; overthrew Tewoflos.
8 February 1716 to 18 May 1721 Dawit III Adabar Sagad
18 May 1721 to 1730 Bakaffa Asma Sagad or
Masih Sagad
19 September 1730 to 26 June 1755 Iyasu II
(Joshua II)
`Alem Sagad
1736 to 1737 Hezqeyas A rebel
Zemene Mesafint (Era of the Princes)
26 June 1755 to 7 May 1769 Iyoas I
(Joas)
Adyam Sagad
7 May to 18 October 1769 Yohannes II
(John II)
18 October 1769 to June 1770 Tekle Haymanot II Admas Sagad III
June to December 1770 Susenyos II
18 October 1769 to 13 April 1777 Tekle Haymanot II Admas Sagad III Restored
13 April 1777 to 20 July 1779 Salomon II
(Solomon II)
20 July 1779 to 8 February 1784 Tekle Giyorgis Feqr Sagad
16 February 1784 to 24 April 1788 Iyasu III
(Joshua III)
1787 to 1788 Iyasu In opposition to Iyasu III
1787 to 1788 Baeda Maryam In opposition to Iyasu III
February 1788 to 1789 Tekle Haymanot In opposition to Iyasu III
24 April 1788 to 26 July 1789 Tekle Giyorgis Feqr Sagad Restored
26 July 1789 to January 1794 Hezqeyas
(Hezekiah)
January 1794 to 15 April 1795 Tekle Giyorgis Feqr Sagad Restored
15 April to December 1795 Baeda Maryam II
December 1795 to 20 May 1796 Tekle Giyorgis Feqr Sagad Restored
20 May 1796 to 15 July 1797 Salomon III
(Solomon III)
18 August 1797 to 4 January 1798 Yonas
(Jonah)
4 January 1798 to 20 May 1799 Tekle Giyorgis Feqr Sagad Restored
20 May 1799 to 15 July 1799 Salomon III
(Solomon III)
Restored
25 July 1799 to 24 March 1800 Demetros
(Demetrius)
24 March to June 1800 Tekle Giyorgis Feqr Sagad Restored
June 1800 to June 1801 Demetros Restored
June 1801 to 3 June 1818 Egwale Seyon Newaya Sagad
19 June 1818 to 3 June 1821 Iyoas II
(Joas II)
3 June 1821 to April 1826 Gigar
April 1826 Baeda Maryam III
April 1826 to 18 June 1830 Gigar Restored
18 June 1830 to 18 March 1832 Iyasu IV
(Joshua IV)
18 March 1832 to 1832 Gebre Krestos
1832 Sahla Dengel
1832 to 8 June 1832 Gebre Krestos Restored
1832 Egwale Anbesa A rebel
October 1832 to 29 August 1840 Sahla Dengel Restored
30 August 1840 to October 1841 Yohannes III
(John III)
October 1841 to 1845 Sahle Dengel Restored
1845 Yohannes III
(John III)
Restored
1845 to 1850 Sahle Dengel Restored
1850 to 1851 Yohannes III
(John III)
Restored
1851 to 11 February 1855 Sahle Dengel Restored
Tewodros Dynasty
9 February 1855 to 13 April 1868 Téwodros II - 2.jpg Kassa Hailu Tewodros II
(Theodore II)
Crowned on 11 February 1855
Zagwe Dynasty
11 June 1868 to 11 July 1871 Wagshum Gobeze Tekle Giyorgis II
Tigray Dynasty
11 July 1871 to 9 March 1889 Yohanes Kassa Mercha Yohannes IV
(John IV)
Crowned on 12 January 1872
Solomonic Dynasty
9 March 1889 to 12 December 1913 Menelik II - 4.jpg Sahle Maryam Menelik II Crowned on 3 November 1889; King of Shewa before becoming Emperor
12 December 1913 to 27 September 1916 Yasu V.jpg Lij Kifle Yaqub Iyasu V
(Joshua V)
Never crowned;deposed by nobles with the sanction of the Church
27 September 1916 to 2 April 1930 Ethiopia empress zauditu.jpg Askala Maryam Zewditu IEmpress
2 April 1930 to 2 May 1936 Selassie Tafari Makonnen Haile Selassie I Crowned on 2 November 1930; exiled by the Italians
  
9 May 1936 to  27 November 1941 Fascist Italian Occupation 
Italian East Africa  (Africa Orientale Italiana)
 
       
ReignPortraitBirth NameRegnal NameNotes
Ethiopian Empire  (Mängəstä Ityop'p'ya)
Solomonic Dynasty
5 May 1941 to 12 September 1974 Selassie Tafari Mekonnen Haile Selassie I Restored; later deposed by the Derg
12 September 1974 to 21 March 1975 Crown Prince Asfaw Wossen.jpg Asfa Wossen Amha Selassie I Designated "King" (not Emperor) by the Derg, did not take throne

Presidents of Ethiopia (1974–present)

(Dates in italics indicate de facto continuation of office)

TenurePortraitIncumbentAffiliationNotes
Derg  (Coordinating Committee of the Armed Forces, Police, and Territorial Army)
12 September 1974 to 17 November 1974 Aman Mikael AndomChairman of the Derg Mil Assassinated
17 November 1974 to 28 November 1974 Mengistu Mengistu Haile MariamChairman of the Derg Mil 1st Term
28 November 1974 to 3 February 1977 Tafari BentiChairman of the Derg Mil Assassinated
3 February 1977 to 11 February 1977 Mengistu Mengistu Haile MariamActing Chairman of the Derg Mil 2nd Term
11 February 1977 to 10 September 1987 Mengistu Haile MariamChairman of the Derg Mil/EWP
People's Democratic Republic of Ethiopia
10 September 1987 to 21 May 1991 Mengistu Mengistu Haile MariamPresident EWP Fled the country at the end of the Ethiopian Civil War
21 May 1991 to 27 May 1991 Tesfaye Gebre KidanActing President EWP
Ethiopia  (Ityop’iya)
27 May 1991 to 28 May 1991 Tesfaye Gebre KidanActing President EWP
28 May 1991 to 22 August 1995 Meles Zenawi  Meles ZenawiInterim President TPLF/EPRDF
Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia  (Ityop’iya Federalawi Demokrasiyawi Ripeblik)
22 August 1995 to 8 October 2001 Negasso GidadaPresident OPDO/n-p Expelled from OPDO on 22 June 2001
8 October 2001 to Present Girma Woldegorgis Girma Wolde-GiorgisPresident EPRDF Re-elected in 2007

 

Heads of Government of Ethiopia (1909–Present)

(Dates in italics indicate de facto continuation of office)

 

TenurePortraitIncumbentAffiliationNotes
Ethiopian Empire
1909 to 1927 Fitawrari Habte Giyorgis.JPG Fitawrari Habte GiyorgisChief Minister n-p Died in office
1927 to 1 May 1936 Selassie Ras Tafari MakonnenChief Minister n-p From 3 April 1930,Emperor Haile Selassie I
1 May 1936 to 1942 Wolde TzaddickChief Minister n-p In exile from 1936 until 1941 due to the Italian occupation
1942 to 1 November 1957 Ras Betwoded Makonnen EndelkachewPrime Minister n-p
27 November 1957 to 15 December 1960 Ras Abebe AregaiPrime Minister n-p Killed during the 1960 coup attempt
12 December 1960 to 15 December 1960 Ras Leul Imru Haile SelassiePrime Minister n-p In rebellion during the 1960 coup attempt
15 December 1960 to 17 April 1961 Vacant
17 April 1961 to 1 March 1974 Tsehafi Taezaz Aklilu Habte-WoldPrime Minister n-p
1 March 1974 to 22 July 1974 Lij Endelkachew MakonnenPrime Minister n-p
3 August 1974 to 12 September 1974 Mikael Imru, Ambassador of Ethiopia, 1961 (JFKWHP-AR6379-A).jpg Lij Mikael ImruPrime Minister n-p
Derg  (Coordinating Committee of the Armed Forces, Police, and Territorial Army)
12 September 1974 to 10 September 1987 Post abolished
People's Democratic Republic of Ethiopia
10 September 1987 to 8 November 1989 Fikre Selassie WogderessPrime Minister EWP
8 November 1989 to 26 April 1991 Hailu YimenuActing Prime Minister EWP
26 April 1991 to 27 May 1991 Tesfaye Dinka Tesfaye DinkaActing Prime Minister EWP
Ethiopia  (Ityop’iya)
27 May 1991 to 6 June 1991 Tesfaye Dinka Tesfaye DinkaActing Prime Minister EWP
6 June 1991 to 22 August 1995 Tamrat Layne Tamirat Layneacting Prime Minister EPDM
Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia  (Ityop’iya Federalawi Demokrasiyawi Ripeblik)

23 August 1995 to 20 August 2012

 (Died in office)

Meles Zenawi  Meles ZenawiPrime Minister TPLF/EPRDF
20 August 2012 to present Haile Mariam Desalegne, Acting Prime Minister SEPDM/EPRDF
Home Ethiopia Rulers and Heads of State

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